Quantum money is a quantum cryptographic protocol that allows for the creation of verifiable but uncopyable states. The requirements are
A) One player (the mint) must be able to produce a quantum money state, along with a serial number.
B) The serial number gives a verification test, and the quantum money state must pass this test with very high probability.
C) If some aspiring counterfeiter has the quantum money state and knows the verification test, they cannot create two quantum states that both pass the verification test.
Quantum money was first proposed in 2009. Since then, several protocols for quantum money have been proposed. We will discuss these protocols and the underlying mechanisms by which they operate.
Peter Shor received a B.S. in Mathematics from Caltech in 1981, and a Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from M.I.T. in 1985. After a one-year postdoctoral fellowship at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute in Berkeley, he took a job at AT&T Bell Laboratories, and stayed at AT&T until 2003. In 2003, he went to MIT as the Morss Professor of Applied Mathematics.
Until 1994, he worked on algorithms for digital computers and did research in probability and combinatorics. In 1994, after thinking about the problem on and off for nearly a year, he discovered an algorithm for factoring large integers into primes on a quantum computer. In the next few years, he showed that quantum error correcting codes exist, and gave a protocol for fault tolerant quantum computation. Since then, he has spent most of his research time investigating quantum computing and quantum information theory.
Among other awards, he has received the Nevanlinna Prize, the Goedel prize, the Dirac medal, a MacArthur Fellowship, the Micius Quantum Prize, and the BBVA Award in Basic Sciences.