The analysis of emotion, affect and sentiment from visual content has become an
exciting area in the multimedia community allowing to build new applications
for brand monitoring, advertising, and opinion mining.
There exists no corpora for sentiment analysis on visual content, and therefore
limits the progress in this critical area.
To stimulate innovative research on this challenging issue, we constructed a new
benchmark and database (you can browse the database at VSO Browsing Interface
This database contains a Visual Sentiment Ontology (VSO) consisting of
3244 adjective noun pairs (ANP), SentiBank a set of 1200 trained
visual concept detectors providing a mid-level representation of
sentiment, associated training images acquired from Flickr, and a
benchmark containing 603 photo tweets covering a diverse set of 21
This website provides the above mentioned material for download and is structured as the following:
Benchmark and Dataset Citation
Damian Borth, Rongrong Ji, Tao Chen, Thomas Breuel and Shih-Fu Chang.
"Large-scale Visual Sentiment Ontology and Detectors Using Adjective Noun Pairs,"
ACM Multimedia Conference, Barcelona, Oct 2013.
Thanks for checking out VSO, you may also be interested in our new expanded and multilingual version MVSO
Construction of the VSO is shown in Fig. 1: process
is founded on psychological research. During the
the first step - the data-driven discovery - for each
of the 24 emotions defined in Plutchik's theory 
we retrieve images and videos from Flickr and
YouTube respectively to extract concurrent tags.
The set of all adjectives and all nouns is now used
to form adjective noun combinations or Adj. Noun
Pairs (ANP) such as "beautiful flowers" or "sad eyes".
Analysed Images & Videos: ~316,000
non-empty ANP candidates: ~47,000
VSO ANPs: 3,244
ANPs included in SentiBank: 1,200
most frequent positive adjectives:
- beautiful, amazing, cute
most frequent negative adjectives:
- sad, angry, dark
most frequent nouns:
- face, eyes, sky
VSO Browsing Interface
The entire VSO can be browsed at the
. At this interface you can
browse the mapping of emotions to ANP (Fig.2)
and see each ANP and its sample images.
Files for Download
1. VSO: full list of ANP names (3244)
2. VSO (SentiBank): list of ANPs included in
SentiBank detectors (1200)
(latest version: 1.1)
Overview of the proposed framework including the construction of the Visual Sentiment Ontology (VSO) and SentiBank.
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions with its 24 emotions organized by 8 basic emotions placed in a circle with each having 3 valences.
To download the VSO data, please fill out the following fields. We will send you
download instructions via email immediately.
People who request and use the dataset
(or code) must agree that 1) the use of the data is restricted to research or education
purpose only, 2) all copyright and license restrictions associated with the dataset/code
will be followed, and 3) the authors of the above paper and their affiliated
organizations make no warranties regarding the database or software, including but not
limited to non-infringement.
 Robert Plutchik. Emotion: A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis. Harper & Row, Publishers, 1980.