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Xu Zhang, Felix Xinnan Yu, Svebor Karaman, Wei Zhang, Shih-Fu Chang. Heated-Up Softmax Embedding. arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.04157, 2018.

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Metric learning aims at learning a distance which is consistent with the semantic meaning of the samples. The problem is generally solved by learning an embedding for each sample such that the embeddings of samples of the same category are compact while the embeddings of samples of different categories are spread-out in the feature space. We study the features extracted from the second last layer of a deep neural network based classifier trained with the cross entropy loss on top of the softmax layer. We show that training classifiers with different temperature values of softmax function leads to features with different levels of compactness. Leveraging these insights, we propose a "heating-up" strategy to train a classifier with increasing temperatures, leading the corresponding embeddings to achieve state-of-the-art performance on a variety of metric learning benchmarks


FelixX. Yu
Shih-Fu Chang

BibTex Reference

   Author = {Zhang, Xu and Yu, Felix Xinnan and Karaman, Svebor and Zhang, Wei and Chang, Shih-Fu},
   Title = {Heated-Up Softmax Embedding},
   Journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.04157},
   Year = {2018}

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